A tobacco pipe , often called simply a pipe , is a device specifically made to smoke tobacco. It comprises a chamber the bowl for the tobacco from which a thin hollow stem shank emerges, ending in a mouthpiece. Pipes can range from very simple machine-made briar models to highly prized hand-made artisanal implements made by renowned pipemakers, which are often very expensive collector’s items. Pipe smoking is the oldest known traditional form of tobacco smoking. Some Native American cultures smoke tobacco in ceremonial pipes , and have done so since long before the arrival of Europeans. Other American Indian cultures smoke tobacco socially. Tobacco was introduced to Europe from the Americas in the 16th century and spread around the world rapidly. As tobacco was not introduced to the Old World until the 16th century,  the older pipes outside of the Americas were usually used to smoke various other substances, including hashish , a rare and expensive substance outside areas of the Middle East, Central Asia and India, where it was then produced. A pipe’s fundamental function is to provide a relatively safe, manipulable volume in which to incompletely combust a smokable substance.
by Robert F. Marx
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Some years ago Lewis Binford devised a formula for dating clay pipe stems, does anyone know of the formula? Also, does anyone know how accurate it has.
There are certain changes of nomenclature that occurred over the long history that assist in arriving at approximate time scales. These changes include:. It should also be remembered that, as the stamps used for stamping pipes got worn, new ones would have been ordered and used alongside the old ones and there could therefore be overlapping of different style. If the band has the following three marks it is made of silver. There is always the possibility that the silver bands may have been ordered in by the factory in batches and therefore could have been used up over several months and be a year out of date by the time they were applied to the pipe.
It can als have been attached afterwords as a repair to fix a crack etc. This is a list with examples of hallmarked pipes to illustrate the different nomenclature to be found:. Pipes can also be found with the name stamped across the top of the stem as apposed to along the side. Not many pipes were made. It is the earliest stamp to be used and can be found from or perhaps earlier and on into the s. This stamp has the shape of an oval rugby-ball rather than a circle round shape.
This can be seen on a Cecil as early as and on an Old Bruyere of and more frequent from the s.
Comoy’s Dating Guide
No one knows for sure who made the first clay pipes. The idea of smoking tobacco came from the American Indian, who had long fashioned their own clay pipes. These, no doubt served as a model for later pipe development.
The way that the “Country of origin” stamps appeared. The introduction of and different ways that the inlaid C was formed on the stem;; The name of the pipe and.
The clay tobacco pipe is an exceptional tool for dating archaeological sites from the historic period because it has undergone a series of stylistic changes over its history of production. The importance of these stylistic changes becomes apparent when one considers that the fragile nature and inexpensive cost of clay pipes resulted in their being smoked, broken and discarded all within the period of a year or two. A large part of the research on clay pipes has dealt with the identification of marks with which makers identified their product.
If a particular mark and pipe bowl can be identified, then so can its place of origin, the date range within which it was made and therefore, a basic time frame for when it was deposited. This article deals specifically with the marked clay tobacco pipes excavated from Ferryland, NL, encompassing examples from both the 17th and 18th centuries. The origins of the clay tobacco pipe date back to the s when tobacco smoking first became fashionable in England. According to William Harrison “In these daies the taking-in of the smoke of the Indian herbe called ‘Tobaco’ by an instrument formed like a little ladell, whereby it passeth from the mouth into the head and stomach, is gretlie taken-up and used in England” Harrison as cited in Oswald It is not known for certain whether these early smoking instruments were made of clay, but by the s, there is specific reference to the use of clay pipes fashioned for tobacco smoking Oswald By the early part of the 17th century, the clay tobacco pipe industry began to develop in many local centres throughout Britain and in many parts of the Netherlands.
Most of these locally-made clay pipes had a limited distribution within their area of manufacture but in the cases of port towns and overseas trading centres, some clay pipes were shipped to the North American colonies. These early pipes typically had a short stem with a large bore diameter and a small “acorn” shaped, rouletted bowl that angled away from the smoker. As the tobacco pipe evolved throughout the 17th century, its stem became longer, its bore size progressively smaller and its bowl larger.
17th and 18th Century Marked Clay Tobacco Pipes From Ferryland, NL
In the beginning — , maybe the pipes were stamped Mi Reserva my reserve. Later the Reg No was added. This Reg No has nothing to do with shape numbers, but is merely the Castello company trademark.
The clay tobacco pipe is an exceptional tool for dating archaeological sites from the As the tobacco pipe evolved throughout the 17th century, its stem became.
Clay tobacco-pipe studies played an important, yet unacknowledged, role in the formation process of historical archaeology in Germany. Systematic analyses of smoking utensils and the craftsmanship involved in making them were the forerunners of the academic discipline. Clay-pipe studies were never restricted by disciplinary boundaries.
Methods and approaches were drawn from ethnology, archaeology, and history, but the field remained purely Eurocentric. However, clay-pipe research has come to a halt. One important reason for this is its high degree of specialization. But, otherwise, historical archaeology is currently on the upswing, despite its unsatisfying engagement with material culture, especially that of the late 18th century onwards.
This article illustrates the development and demise of clay-pipe research in Germany in the context of the emergence of historical archaeology as a discipline. It includes elements in common with clay-pipe research in the United States and in Britain, and it also highlights significant differences.
Thumbnails Detail Comments. The manufacture of clay pipes for smoking began in Britain about , a few years after the introduction of tobacco from America. The earliest forms of pipe were made from kaolin clay white ball clay and it is likely their form was adapted from those used by the American Indians.
The study is focused on English made pipes, but provides a system of dating between During the mid eighteenth century, extra-long pipe stems became.
Impressed into clay tobacco pipes are bits of data that have fueled endless research avenues since the earliest days of archaeology on historic sites excavated on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Archaeologists analyze multiple clues to date and identify the pipe maker including a careful combination of archaeological site context, bowl style and form, pipe stem bore diameter, style and placement of the mark itself, and place of manufacture.
We ask that if you have a nearly complete bowl from which a type can be determined, to use the Oswald typology, but there is also a field to record reference to another typology, should you prefer. Marks also appear on pipe stems. Marks were produced by molds that left incuse negative or relief raised impressions Oswald In the first half of the 17th century, for both English and Dutch pipes, marks generally appear on the flat base of the heel.
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Historical archaeology is not a subject that I usually approach, because I am not trained to properly register sites, map, excavate and write archaeological reports.
Because the time span of the casemate under study is relatively short about 50 years dating of pipes has been done primarily on the evidence of makers’ marks and names. With the exception of the Dutch bowls, all bowls from which the shape could be deduced appeared to be basically of Oswald’s type 9 Oswald 60, In the New World at least, the export version Oswald’s type 9c and numerous variants and derivatives were universal long after this, and certainly as late as about I. In England, Oswald’s type 10 continued the more traditional features in various forms.
This type continued for most of the 18th century until type 11, a derivative of type 9, became standard and finally set the norm for what is traditionally considered the shape of a British clay pipe. Harrington’s method of dating pipe fragments by bore diameter measurement Harrington was not used in this study, as the relevant Harrington period, , covered virtually the entire occupancy of the area involved.
Binford’s straight-line regression formula based on Harrington’s work Maxwell and Binford ; Binford , however, was applied to the various layers in order to obtain comparative evidence. The order of layers in this casemate from top to bottom runs from Layer 1 to Layer 12, inclusive. No significant pipe material came from Layer 1.
The skill and experience of the individual undertaking the work will play a large part in determining how accurate and reliable any assessment of dating is, and specialist advice should certainly be taken when dealing with large assemblages or those where the pipe dating is fundamental to the excavated deposits. But it is certainly possible for a good assessment of date to be made by considering the key characteristics of any given pipe or pipe assemblage, guidelines for which are given below.
They can be used to indicate whether a context group is likely to contain residual material, or whether it represents a coherent and potentially tightly dated group.
usefulness of clay pipe remains in dating Australian archaeological sites. ‘If archaeologists had Because the porosity ofthe stem could peel skin from the lips of.
Post a Comment. Our heroes Andy and Lance are working the field with metal detectors, rhythmically swinging them back and forth while listening through headphones for telltale pings signaling metal in the ground. Lance carefully puts the ring pull into a plastic baggie. Cut my heel. Had to cruise on back home. People buy this shit. That exchange captures the gently mocking, almost self-deprecating humor of this superb series. Not much of a vacation actually as I was trying to cope with nasty back issues that kept me from looking much above eye-level without excruciating pain.
A friend, who is a birding authority, was visiting, so my wife and I ventured out with her to several of the nature preserves that dot the North Fork. They vary greatly in quality but the impulse behind them is praise worthy. The first preserve we visited was alive with birds even at midday. Not too shabby given how limited my field of vision was.
I was compelled for much of this outing to keep my eyes focused on the ground lifting them only when someone else spotted a bird , but, as an instance of how contingent life is, at one point I spied a small, off-white object pressed into the trail.
The Art and Archaeology of Clay Pipes
Stem stamps are only rarely found. The ones featured in the picture here were made in Bristol as well as the Isle of Wight. There were Italian pipe makers, make no mistake, but these workshops and factories seemed to focus on maintaining high production numbers rather than on the quality of the product. Another theory among archeologists for the decrease in bore diameters is that tobacco became more refined, meaning the pieces of tobacco were smaller.
A tobacco pipe, often called simply a pipe, is a device specifically made to smoke tobacco. Stems and bits of tobacco pipes are usually made of moldable materials like Ebonite, Lucite, Bakelite, and soft plastic. Less common Broken fragments of clay pipe can be useful as dating evidence for archaeologists. In the s.
Login or Sign Up. Logging in Remember me. Log in. Forgot password or user name? Posts Latest Activity. Page of 1. Filtered by:. Previous template Next. I find a lot of clay pipe stems where I hunt Generally, I attribute them to European settlers and the likes Of course, I’m sure some did use them, having traded with the Europeans, but is it common to find clay pipe stems at late woodland sites that are definitively attributed to the Indians?
Tags: None. What are you defining as “Late Woodland” by way of date?